Properties of Matter
Part 1: Characteristic Properties of Matter
Temperature and Density
Students measure the mass, volume, and density of a sample of air and determine that gases have very low densities compared to liquids and solids.
INQB Work collaboratively with other students to carry out the investigation.
INQE Create a model or simulation to represent the behavior of objects…point out how the model or simulation is similar to or different from the actual phenomenon.
APPA Describe how a technology has changed over time in response to societal changes.
PS3A Describe ways in which energy is transformed…and transferred from one place to another.
- Liquid thermometers measure temperature by measuring the amount of expansion or contraction that takes place in the liquid inside the thermometer.
- Gas thermometers measure temperature by measuring the amount of expansion or contraction that takes place in the gas inside the thermometer. There needs to be a visible marker in the thermometer to show the volume of gas inside the thermometer.
- When heated, a bimetal strip will curl because it is made of two metals with different densities.
- Inquiry 5.1: Students may get too bogged down in the math needed to calibrate the thermometer to the nearest 5ºC to see the big picture comparison between the scales of the model and the lab thermometer. You may want to revise the procedure to do a more basic comparison. Time to complete the calibration is also an issue, especially if you teach multiple classes using the same materials.
- Inquiry 5.2: Expect the air to expand and push the liquid marker all the way out the top of the tube as well as contract enough for the marker to fall all the way into the test tube. All students need to see is the stark comparison between the expansion and contraction of the liquid (water) vs. the gas (air.)
|Air thermometer||Water marker|
- Inquiry 5.3: This demonstration can be used as an introduction to this lesson or as a conclusion as it is placed in the student guide.
- Changing Temperature, Changing Density: This reading is a summary of how temperature affects density. It also includes the significant exception to the rule (being water, which increases in volume with a decrease in temperature.)
- Measuring Temperature by Degrees: This reading is a great social studies connection. It discusses the history of the thermometer, as well as where the units for measuring temperature come from.
- Just a Load of Hot Air: This reading is about density and floating & sinking in air.
- Density Creates Currents: This reading is a great connection to the world around us and how density creates currents in the air, water, and interior of Earth. This reading is a great connection for students who have studied or will study the STC/MS module Catastrophic Events.
- The Trans-Alaska Pipeline: Meeting Nature’s Challenges: This reading is a great connection to technology and ecology. It applies the concept of density to a real-world problem and its effects on the environment.
- Inquiry 5.1: This inquiry calls for students to calibrate their model thermometers to 5ºC. This is a great comparison for students who understand the purpose of the math and can take the extra step to go back and use the model to measure room temperature (time allowing.)